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Candida albicans is a commensal organism in humans, and an important opportunistic fungal pathogen. Candidiasis usually occurs in patients whose immune defenses have been compromised, but the host response in normal individuals is not well understood. Therefore, this study focused on an analysis of the following: 1. The effect of infection with different strains of C. albicans on the severity of oral and systemic candidiasis in resistant and susceptible strains of inbred mice; 2. A comparison of phagocytosis and killing of different strains of yeasts by neutrophils and macrophages from these mice; 3.The ability of antibody to protect against infection, and the spectrum of antigenic determinants to which they respond; 4. The role of T-helper cytokines in candidiasis.
Candida albicans represents one of the most fungi isolated from clinical samples, which may cause serious problems to humans and especially in immunodeficient patients. This work was designed to genotyping Candida albicans isolated from groups of immunocompromised patients in Najaf Hospitals (Iraq) depending on 25s rDNA and RPS by using PCR and RFLP techniques as well as detection the antifungals profile for each genotype. Our study revealed three different genotypes of Candida albicans beside a new genotypic pattern detected for a first time. This book represents the first published data about Candida albicans genotyping in Iraq.
Candidiasis is the commonest fungal disease in human being. The causative agent of the disease is Candida albicans and non- albicans Candida. Candida has 163 acknowledged anamorphic species, present on the different habitat out of which following species are C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii, C. parapsilosis, C. lusitaniae, C. kefyr, C. rugosa, C. dubliniensis and C. viswanathii known to causing disease in human beings. The virulence factors of the C. albicans have the great role in the pseudohyphae formation by attached with epithelial cells and endothelial cells. Now a day various techniques like PCR, Candida Detection System, CAND-TEC and Dot Immunobinding Assay are available for detection of candidiasis from various clinical samples. The CHROM agar Candida is useful method to differentiate between the Candida albicans and other species of the genus Candida by the help of colonies colour of the Candida on culture plate. Keeping skin clean, dry, and free from abrasions or cuts can help prevent skin from Candidal infections. The animal pathogenicity of Candida has been observed in few animals like rabbit and mice.
Candidosis have greatly increased over recent years, mainly due to the rise of the AIDS epidemic, an increasingly aged population, higher numbers of immunocompromised patients, and the more widespread use of indwelling medical devices. C. albicans is the main cause of candidosis, however, non- Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species such as C. glabrata, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis are now frequently identified as potential human pathogens. The apparent increased recognition of these species as human pathogens can be attributed to improved identification methods and reflects the high level of resistance often exhibited by these Candida species to certain antifungal agents. Candida pathogenicity is facilitated by a number of virulence factors, most importantly adherence to host surfaces including medical devices, biofilm formation, and secretion of hydrolytic enzymes. Furthermore, despite extensive research to identify pathogenic factors in C. albicans, relatively little is known about NCAC species. The work presented in this book described the most relevant virulence factors of C. glabrata, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis.
Diabetes is major health problem with high morbidity and mortality. Currently affects more than 285 million people worldwide according to the Mexican Diabetes Federation. Candidiasis is a common disorder, especially in patients with diabetes. It is caused by an overgrowth of Candida in the mouth, digestive tract, vagina and other tissues. People with diabetes have high levels of glucose in the blood are more susceptible to oral candidiasis. A dental prosthesis is an artificial element that is used to restore the anatomy of a tooth or teeth, also the restoration of the relationship between the jaws, while correcting the vertical dimension and improve both the natural dentition and periodontal structures. The study aims to determine the incidence of Candida albicans in patients diabetes with total or partial prosthesis.
Early Childhood Caries (ECC), a rampant type of dental caries in children below 71 months of age; a chronic childhood disease with a severe sequalae affecting the child and family. It is a multifactorial disease, with S.mutans and Lactobacilli being implicated as the main microorganisms in its etiopathogenesis. Recent literature suggests a probable role of Candida, fungal species, a normal commensal of the oral cavity, in its etiopathogenesis. Under particular predisposing physiological or pathological conditions, Candida is capable of provoking pathologies via endogenous infectious mechanism. In early childhood period, due to immature immune system and not fully established microflora in the oral cavity, children are more susceptible to opportunistic microbial colonization. This book covers a pre-school cross-sectional study to determine the Candida albicans counts, forms of existence and acidogenic potential; and to correlate its role with Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis and Lactobacilli levels in children with ECC, S-ECC and caries free.
Inflammation is a vascular and cellular reaction to a wide variety of injurious and dangerous stimuli. Many immunological diseases manifest as chronic inflammation. Diseases that are caused by abnormal immune responses and that also involve significant inflammation are called immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Hypersensitivity describes an abnormal or pathologic immune reaction that is caused by an immune response to repeated exposure to an antigen. Hypersensitivity diseases include autoimmune diseases, in which immune responses are directed against self-antigens, AND diseases that result from uncontrolled or excessive responses to foreign antigens. Because these reactions tend to occur against antigens that cannot be escaped (i.e. self-antigens) and because of positive feedback systems intrinsic to various aspects of the immune response, hypersensitivity diseases tend to manifest as chronic problems. Autoimmunity is the response of the adaptive immune system to self-antigens that occurs when mechanisms of self-tolerance fail.
‘Oral cavity of humans is, but a reservoir of micro- organisms….'' Candida albicans and related species are the most common fungal opportunistic pathogens. In the oral cavity this microorganism is found more on the dorsum of the tongue and the buccal mucosa. These organisms are widely known to cause oral candidosis and denture stomatitis. Failure to maintain adequate hygiene of the prosthesis has been shown to be associated with a high level of oral Candida colonization, with surface roughness of prosthesis providing niches in which the micro-organisms are protected from shear forces and oral hygiene measures, thus, allowing the entrapped microbial cells enough time to attach irreversibly and penetrate into the prosthesis surface. This book evaluates the in-vitro adherence and penetration by Candida albicans into three different denture base materials and consequently might aid in decreasing the occurrence of oral Candida associated denture stomatitis in denture wearers.
Immune system protects us against infections and at the same time is responsible for autoimmune diseases such as asthma and arthritis. Moreover, controlling immune response is of utmost importance in setting of organ transplantation. Dendritic cells are the key players in regulating protective as well as autoimmune responses. Therefore dendritic cells can be utilized for bot initiation of protective immune responses as well as for controlling undesirable self-reactive/autoimmune responses. In this book, several novel strategies based on dendritic cells are described, which can be used to suppress unwanted immune responses. Furthermore, the strategies described can be used for induction of immunological tolerance in an antigen specific fashion without affecting immune response to other antigens. This is particularly desirable for these strategies can be used to control autoimmune responses without making the individual immunocompromised as is the case with several immunomodulatory drugs currently used in clinical settings.
This book deals with three key words- magnesium oxide, tissue conditioners and candida albicans. This book discusses about an in vitro study evaluating the efficacy of magnesium oxide powder incorporated into tissue conditioners against the growth of candida albicans . The key advantages of metallic oxides in tissue conditioners as a way of drug delivery is mentioned . This study can be of clinical significance, as incorporation of magnesium oxide sensitivity disc into tissue conditioners showed good inhibition of candida albicans and can be recommended for clinical use as well as for the incorporation of metallic oxide in tissue conditioners by manufacturers .
The ultimate goal of tumor immunotherapy is the eradication of tumor cells by the immune system. Both innate and adaptive immune responses can contribute to the elimination of tumor cells, with natural killer (NK) cells and T lymphocytes as pivotal players, respectively. Dendritic cells (DC) are the most professional antigen-presenting cells of the immune system, bridging innate and adaptive immune responses through interaction with NK cells and presenting tumor-associated antigens to T cells. A major hurdle in anti-tumor immunity, however, is the low immunogenicity and immunosuppressive character of tumor cells resulting in an immunotolerant environment. Here, the primary scope was to increase the immunogenicity of leukemic cells by introducing a danger signal to break immune tolerance. We clearly demonstrate that transfection of leukemic cells with the synthetic double-stranded RNA agonist poly(I:C) provides a way to overcome immune evasion, evidenced by their enhanced capacity to activate both NK cells and DC. We draw particular attention to the significance of NK cells, advocating for reinforcement of both cytotoxic and regulatory NK cell functions in cancer immunotherapy.
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of plasma cells (PCs) which accumulate in the bone marrow (BM), thus, leading to anemia, bone lesions, hypercalcemia, renal impairment and immune dysfunction. T regulatory (Treg) cells maintain immune homeostasis in healthy individuals by patrolling unwanted immune responses. Whereas in cancer patients, these cells are uncontrollably expanded, thereby, inhibiting the host anti-tumor responses. Majorly this work is focused to understand the role of Treg cells, including CD4 Treg cells and CD8 Treg cells in rendering the immune impairments in MM patients. This study clearly showed that both CD4 and CD8 Treg cells were functionally suppressive and increased in MM patients. These findings were confirmed by using different methods, including flow cytometry, functional and molecular studies (RT-PCR and western blot). Clinical significance of this study was CD4 Treg cells were found to be increased in patients with shorter time to progression, hypercalcemia, lower normal PC counts (? 5%) and IgA myeloma subtype. From these findings, Treg cells could be considered as one of the evasion mechanisms of myeloma cells from host immune responses.
Infection with hepatitis C virus is a serious worldwide problem which may lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The prevalence of HCV in Egypt is very high (about 20 % of the population). The only available treatment for HCV is the alpha interferon in combination with the guanosine analogue ribavirin. The immune response to this virus is insufficient in most infected individuals, thus the majority of whom develop chronic liver disease with viral persistence despite the presence of HCV-antibodies and cellular immune responses. Differences in the host cellular immune response to HCV may be important in viral clearance. The cellular immune response plays a major role in HCV infection and could represent an attractive target for therapeutic intervention.
Fungal infection is becoming a serious medical problem, its incidence of occurrence is increasing steadily and it has become fourth most common cause of nosocomial bloodstream infections. The majority of fungal infections are caused by Candida species, and among them, Candida albicans has emerged as most frequent opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes systemic and mucosal infections. Its control and prevention is difficult in immunocompromised individuals due to emergence of multidrug-resistance as well as insufficiency in inhibitory potential of available drugs that pose challenge in controlling invasive mycosis. Additionally, antimycotic drugs exert multiple adverse effects and are occasionally dose limiting. In such circumstances, it has become imperative to find novel antifungal agent and its targets. Host antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), are receiving lots of attention as new antifungal agents because they are part of our innate defense system and rarely induce microbial resistance. The work presented in this book illustrated fungicidal activity with emphasis on mechanism of action of these peptides against Candida albicans.
The human Immune responses are directed to eliminate infectious pathogens from the host body. Th1 CD4 cells are involved in the destruction and removal of intracellular pathogens while Th2 CD4 cells are responsible for ejection of extracellular parasites. Since Th1 and Th2 immune cells are cross regulatory molecules, intestinal (extracellular) parasites, initiate the type two immune responses in which more CD4 Th2 cells are produced and the host immune response become activated chronically. In Th2 directed chronic immune activation, Th1 immune cells become down regulated by a strong production of Th2 immune cells and the generation of specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes for HIV will be impaired. This situation provides chance for HIV to replicate at high rate and leads more CD4 cells to be infected and resulting immune suppression. In immune suppressive state, opportunistic infections become aggravate and give rise in to a complex disease; AIDS.