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The present research project deals with the design of cinnarizine loaded oral controlled release mucoadhesive interpenetrating polymer network hydrogel microspheres composed of chitosan and methylcellulose and optimization of various response parameters using response surface methodology. A detailed introduction, literature review and methodology has been provided for the readers to gain an insight into the theory and practice of design of experiments. The research work involved application of several core aspects of drug delivery incorporating polymer complexes, hydrogel networks, gastroretention, bioadhesion, absorption window related to weakly basic drugs, mathematical modeling of drug release kinetics, microencapsulation processes and various optimization and characterization techniques. The high degree of prognosis (due to low values of error) obtained using response surface methodology corroborates that a two-factor central composite design is quite efficient in optimizing drug delivery systems that exhibit nonlinearity in response(s). The results indicated that interpenetrating polymer networks could be employed as potential gastroretentive systems for weakly basic drugs.
Novel interpenetrating network (IPN) hydrogel microspheres, consisting of xanthan gum and poly(vinyl alcohol) were prepared by water-in-oil emulsion crosslinking method using glutaraldehyde for the controlled release of diclofenac sodium,as a model drug.Various formulations were prepared by changing the ratio of XG:PVA, extent of cross-linking in order to optimize the formulation variables on drug encapsulation efciency, and release rate. Formation of IPN and the chemical stability of DS after preparation of microspheres was confrmed by FTIR, DSC & XRD analysis were done which confrmed molecular dispersion of DS in the IPN. Microspheres formed were spherical with smooth surfaces, as evidenced by SEM & mean particle size measured by laser light scattering technique. Drug encapsulation of up to 82.94% was achieved by UV method. Both equilibrium & dynamic swelling studies and in vitro release studies were performed in pH 1.2 and 7.4. Release data indicated Fickian trend of drug release. In vivo pharmacokinetic data showed prolonged drug release as compared with DS solution. Based on the results it was concluded that these IPN microspheres provided controlled release application of DS
An Interpenetrating Polymer Network (IPN) is the normal form of two or more crosslinked polymers. These are water soluble networks and are rendered insoluble due to the presence of chemical or physical crosslinks. As IPNs have high water uptaking capacity and biocompatibility to natural tissues, these are used in biomedical and pharmaceutical applications like drug-delivery systems. Characteristics of IPNs like % swelling, number average molecular weight between crosslinks, mesh size, compressive strength vary when these are formed from different crosslinking agents and are allowed to swell in different environment of pH and temperature. Poly Vinyl Alcohal (PVA) is a tough polymer and is highly water-soluble. When Semi-IPN of PVA/AA (Acrylic Acid) is formed using Glutraldehyde(GA)/TMPTA or GA/BIS crosslinker, the space between the mesh becomes smaller and stronger. As a result, it becomes super water retainer for carrying some substance in aquatic mediums. Due to anionic nature of AA, %swelling of IPN increased as compared to hydrogel of pure PVA . Thus, used to carry model drug Etophylline.
Ophthalmic Drug Delivery System: Ophthalmic Drug Delivery System is a part of Novel drug delivery system. Mr. Ankit Soni has covered the introduction part of the Ophthalmic Drug Delivery System, deep study of eye, various dosage forms, recent advancements, novel approaches which shows increase Bioavailability of drug, Improved therapeutic efficiency, Reduce Dosing frequency, Increase Patient compliance, Reduce adverse effect. The book also contains diagrammatic representation and well describe figures make this book easy to understand.
For the drug delivery oral drug delivery is most convenient. For getting the maximum effect on the stomach or for particularly stomach targeted drug are must present in stomach for long time. So for these various approaches are available in this research work for gastroretentive drug delivery system. Methods, Advantages, Limitations and Applications for these drug delivery system is describes in this work. I done my best to cover all information. Thank you.
Pulsatile drug delivery system is defined as the rapid and transient release of certain amount of drug molecules within a short time period immediately after a predetermined off-release period, i.e., lag time. Oral controlled drug delivery systems represent the most popular form of controlled drug delivery systems. However, there are certain conditions for which such a release pattern is not suitable like cardiovascular diseases, Diabetes mellitus, Asthma, Arthritis, Peptic ulcer etc. In such cases pulsatile drug delivery system is used in which release drug on programmed pattern i.e. at appropriate time & at appropriate site of action. Various pulsatile technologies have been developed on the basis of methodologies, these includes ACCU-BREAK™, AQUALON, CODAS®, PRODAS®, SODAS®, MINITABS®, DIFFUCAPS®, OROS® etc. Designing of proper pulsatile drug delivery will enhance the patient compliance, optimum drug delivery to the target side & minimizing the undesired effects.
Microspheres constitute an important part of particulate drug delivery systems by virtue of their small size and efficient carrier capacity. Microspheres are the carrier linked drug delivery system in which particle size is ranges from 1-1000 µm range in diameter having a core of drug and entirely outer layers of polymer as coating material. Microsphere drug administration offers a number of advantages in therapeutics ,where the controlled release of drug delivery as well as the predictable and reproducible drug release kinetics are important feature of them.The main aim and objective of the present study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining a prolonged relatively constant effective level of Rabeprazole sodium using sodium CMC as polymer.
The delivery of drugs into systemic circulation via skin has generated lot of interest in recent time. Transdermal drug delivery is now a promising route of drug delivery system. The transdermal drug delivery system has potential advantages of avoiding hepatic first pass metabolism, maintaining constant blood levels for longer period of time, decrease side effects, decrease gastrointestinal effect that occur due to local contact with gastric mucosa and improved compliance. The success of transdermal drug delivery system depends on the ability of the drug to penetrate through the skin in sufficient quantities to achieve desired therapeutic levels. Matrix systems is one of the method to delivery drug directly to blood circulation. Iontophoresis is one of the physical approach in enhancement of transdermal permeation. This utilizes electric current as a driving force for permeation of ionic and nonionic medications.
Gastrointestinal mucoadhesive drug delivery system targets the drug to its absorption site and maintain the dosage form at that site for an extended period of time. This results in enhanced drug absorption, which will in turn increase the bioavailability of the drug and thus will decrease the dosing frequency and dose related side effects of the drugs. Microparticulate delivery system is preferred over conventional tablet system as it has several advantages like it provides a wider surface area of contact between drug and the absorption site and also controlles the release of drug from the formulation over extended period of time. Thus the potential of above mentioned drug delivery device is promising and may be considered as a novel tool inorder to improve the therapeutic efficacy of various drugs with shorter half life and poor bioavailability.
Local Drug Delivery System is an emerging trend in the field of Periodontology.Continues research is going-on and newer drugs are getting added as local drug delivery system.Eradicating microorganisms from the periodontal pocket is a crucial task in treating periodontitis. For treating periodontal diseases targeting of an anti-infective agent to infection sites with effective levels for a sufficient time while concurrently evoking minimal or no side effects is needed.Novel therapeutic agents are being improvised in the arena of local drug delivery system to ensure maximum benefit. This book will help both Under-graduate and Post-graduate students as well as the general practitioners in the field of dentistry to know the details about local drug delivery systems and local drug delivery agents being used for periodontal diseases and other oral infections in detail.
Controlled drug delivery systems can include the maintenance of drug levels within a desired range, and increased patient compliance. The goal of many of the original controlled-release systems was to achieve a delivery profile that would yield a high blood level of the drug over a long period of time. With traditional drug delivery systems, the drug level in the blood rises after each administration of the drug and then decreases until the next administration. The key point with traditional drug administration is that the blood level of the agent should remain between a maximum value, which may represent a toxic level, and a minimum value, below which the drug is no longer effective and this can be easily achieved by Controlled drug delivery system.
The development of controlled release formulations continues to be a big success for pharmaceutical industry due to its ease of manufacturing process and reproducibility of desirable pharmaceutical properties. Controlled drug delivery systems are receiving more and more attention as they control the rate of drug release and sustain the duration of therapy. Oral controlled drug delivery systems release the drug with constant or variable release rates.A delivery system with a release profile that is characterized by a time period of no release (lag time) followed by a rapid and complete drug release (pulse release) can be called as an ideal pulsatile drug delivery system. In other words, it is required that a drug should not be released at all during the initial phase of dosage form administration. A timed, pulsatile delivery system provides one or more rapid release pulses at predetermined lag times or at specific sites resulting in better absorption of the drug, and thereby providing more effective plasma concentration time profile. Pulsatile drug delivery systems are generally classified into time-controlled pulsatile release and site specific delivery systems.
A new value paradigm is taking shape in the drug delivery market. Nanotechnology delivery techniques will shape the future of drug delivery. ”Nanotechnology-enabled drug delivery systems (DDS) over the next ?ve years are forecast to dramatically reshape the way existing drugs are delivered”. The growing range of nanotechnology enabled drug delivery methods is poised to change the way new compounds are formulated, and to extend the life cycle of existing compounds. Nanoparticles hold promise as therapeutic agents for a number of diseases. In this book give a brief introduction regarding pulmonary drug delivery system. Determining the physicochemical characteristics of inhaled nanoparticles on their ability to cross the lungs alveolar epithelial surface is an important step in understanding the biological effects associated with exposure to these particles.
This book provides a statistical approach to design and optimization of monolithic gastric floating drug delivery system of anticancer drug, Alfuzosin. Drug delivery system has its main aim to administered appropriate amount of drugs to the target site of the body in order to achieve and maintain the desired therapeutic drug concentration that elicits the desired pharmacological action. Drug absorption of oral route could be inadequate and highly variable in individuals due to physiological variabilities. This can be overcome by developing a suitable gastroretentive drug delivery system, which can prolong the gastric residence time of dosage form thereby improve the drug bio-availability. Floating drug delivery system is considerably easy and logical approach in the development of gastroretentive dosage forms. The oral delivery of anticancer alfuzosin was facilitated by preparing a gastric floating dosage form which could increase its absorption in the gastric region of the stomach by prolonging the gastric residence time of the drug. In the present work, gastric floating tablets were optimized by conventional process and further optimized by statistical methods.
During the past three decades significant advances have been made in the area of the novel drug delivery. In a typical therapeutic regimen the drug dose and dosing interval are optimized to maintain drug concentration within the therapeutic window, thus ensuring efficacy while minimizing toxic effects. Survey indicated that dosing more than one or twice daily, greatly reduces patient compliance. So in recent year considerable attention has been focused on the development of novel drug delivery system and the main reason for this paradigm shift is relatively low development cost and time required for introducing a novel drug delivery system as compared to a new chemical entity. In the form of novel drug delivery system, an existing drug molecule can get a new life there by increasing its market value competitiveness and patent life among the various novel drug delivery system available in the market, per oral controlled release system hold the major market share because of their obvious advantages of ease of administration and better patient compliance. These products provide significant benefits over immediate release formulation.