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There is growing interest in developing chemical and biochemical processes to obtain and modify biopolymers, and to other useful technical properties for their applications in different fields. The latest and most interesting example is chitin, it is mainly used for production of chitosan by a deacetylation reaction usually obtained in alkaline medium. Chitosan exhibits several favorable properties, such as biodegradability and biocompatibility. It also has mucoadhesive properties due to its positive charges at neutral pH that enable an ionic interaction with the negative charges of sialic acid residues of the mucus. Numerous studies have demonstrated that chitosan and its derivatives are effective and safe absorption enhancers to improve mucosal (nasal, peroral) delivery of hydrophilic macromolecules, such as peptides, proteins, and heparins. Chitosan has been developed for a variety of biomedical applications including wound dressings and drug delivery systems.
Application of chitosan products in wastewater treatment has received considerable attention in recent years in the literature. In particular, the development of chitosan-based materials as useful adsorbent polymeric matrices is an expanding field in the area of adsorption science. This book, investigates the development of chitosan-based adsorbent for removal of oil from industrial wastwater treatment.
The need is always found for effective substitution of chemical and synthetic food preservatives with effective and powerful alternatives from natural origins. Chitosan is an amazing biopolymer with a very wide range of applications. Chitosan could be produced microbiologically from the fungal cell walls. The nature, occurrence, antimicrobial activity and other potential applications of chitosan are illustrated in this book. Successful production of chitosan from Aspergillus brasiliensis mycelia, using agricultural waste as a substrate, is pointed out in this study. The application of produced fungal chitosan as a biopreservative, for the protection and maintaining the quality of minced meat, are also highlighted in this book. This book will provide readers; researchers and food industry overseers with an interesting and innovative topic for the enhancement of food safety.
After coated by diluted modified chitosan solutions with different concentrations, the oranges were stored at ambient temperature in cardboard for 7-8 weeks. The effect of various chitosan coating on fruit ripening behavior and physical characteristic such as freshness, loss weight, color of skin, surface strain…were evaluated during storage. The overall results showed the superiority of modified chitosan solution of 300ppm in prolonging the shelf life of orange as compared to control and other Concentrations.
This book provides an overview in recent progress in the field of chitosan based smart nanoformulations and describes the basic concepts of passive and active cancer targeting chitosan based drug delivery vehicles including organ-specific drug delivery systems. Also, the construction and applications of multifunctional chitosan nanoparticulates used in cancer diagnosis, imaging and therapy have been described. The book also introduced an insight into various, mono, dual and multi-responsive smart chitosan nanoparticles that respond to their environment and their application in controlled gene and drug release nanoformulations.
In this book, the author studied the removal of Au(III) and Ag(I) on a chemically modified chitosan (R1) with Schiff's base of thiourea/glutaraldehyde in the presence of magnetite. The selective separation of Hg(II) using magnetic chitosan resin modified with Schiff's base derived from thiourea and glutaraldehyde (R1) has been studied. The removal of Mo(VI) as oxyanions from aqueous solutions was studied using magnetic chitosan resins chemically modified through the reaction with tetraethylenepentamine followed by glycidyl trimethylammonium chlorid to produce chitosan bearing amine (R2) and chitosan bearing both amine and quaternary ammonium chloride moieties (R3), respectively. Also the removal of reactive black 5 from aqueous solutions using magnetic chitosan resins (R2 and R3) was studied.
The dissolution of chitosan in ionic liquids wassuccessfully accomplished. Benzoylation andphthalation of chitosan in homogeneous conditions wasalso achieved.By modifying the chitosan withdifferent reagents, new desired chemical and physicalproperties can be induced which will enlarge thefield of the potential applications. Blends of chitosan and cellulose were successfullyprepared using BMIMAc as a common solvent.Therheological measurements of the polymeric solutionsindicated the formation of a complex between chitosanand cellulose molecules. Films prepared from thepolymeric solutions were investigated by means ofFT-IR, TGA, X-ray diffraction and SEM measurements.The interest in obtaining films from blends ofchitosan and cellulose is owed to skin tissueregeneration and accelerate healing of wounds effectcreated by the presence of chitosan that hasdistinctive biomedical properties when used aswound-dressing materials.
Chitosan (aminopolysaccharide) is a natural polymer. Thanks to excellent functional properties, it was found to be a good natural source in various applications such as biomedical, agricultural, functional food, wastewater purification and environmental protection. However, practical use of chitosan was generally limited due to its weak solubility in neutral pH, its poor workability and low antioxidant activity. For a breakthrough in utilization, the functionalization of chitosan will be a suitable solution. Enzymatic or chemical functionalizations of chitosan were carried out based on its reactive groups (-NH2 and -OH). Due to growing safety and environmental concerns, enzymatic methods were investigated as an attractive alternative to toxic and non-specific chemical approaches. This work discusses the mechanisms and the methods of enzymatic functionalization of chitosan.
Chitosan is a natural carbohydrate biopolymer derived by deacetylation of chitin. Reaction of chitosan with carbonyl compounds leading to formation of Schiff bases have been reported in the older literatures and their importance has not yet fully realized. The present work involves modification of chitosan by benzophenone, acetophenone, cinnamic acid or phenylacetic acid. The thermal stabilities of the prepared polymers were compared with chitosan polymer. Thermal degradation of the modified polymers has been studied in order to determine the nature of the degradation products and the activation energies of the degradation were calculated.
In the present scenario most of the synthetic polymers, because of their biocompatibility and biodegradability are much more limited than those of the natural polymers such as Cellulose, Chitin, Chitosan and their derivatives. Chitin and Chitosan are more versatile, renewable and promising biomaterials waiting for commercial promotion. The reaction of chitosan is considerably more versatile than cellulose because of the presence of NH2groups. Application of Chitosan in the field of medicine, agriculture, food, cosmetics, and biopharmaceuticals is a remarkable one. This manuscript presents the preparation of chitosan membranes cross linked with sulphuric acid to improve the proton conductivity. This also throws light on the characterization of the membranes by UV-Vis, FTIR- XRD. The interaction detected decreases the membrane crystallinity which can be used to monitor the progress of the cross linking reaction. The optical absorption and transmittance data are used for the identification of band gap, refractive index, extinction co-efficient and nature of the transitions
The chitin, chitosan and their derivatives are found increasing uses day by day with more than 200 applications that include cosmetics, agriculture, food, biomedical, textile etc. This book provide an avenue for the wise utilization of bivalve shell which is so far used only for ornamental purpose apart from being a raw material for lime production, towards additional uses of bivalve shell for production of chitosan and its derivatives, as it consists of chitin. In medical science, it has been reported that chitosan and its derivatives play important role in drug release control, oral hygiene, periodontal use, antitumour, antiulcer, anticoagulant, hemostasis, wound healing and dressing, etc. Now-a-days, researchers are interested in finding natural antioxidants like chitosan and its derivatives since they protect the human body from free radicals and also retarding the progress of many chronic diseases. Further, the antioxidant activity of chitosan and its derivatives has attracted the most attention due to their non-toxic nature and natural abundance.It can also throw light on its utilization in the in the pharmaceutical and neutraceutical industries.
Polysaccharides are composed of many monosaccharide units that are joined one to the other by acetyl linkage to give a long chain. Chitin is a biopolymer consisting of acetyl-glucosamine. Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide consisting of B- (1, 4)-2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose units. It is produced by alkaline deacetylation of chitin. Today, Chitin and chitosan have many applications in the biomedical, pharmaceutical and biotechnological fields. Chitosan production from microbial origin has many advantages over traditional productions from crustaceans shells since it avoids limited and seasonal supply, processing complexity and waste removal difficulties. Currently, industrial production for chitin and chitosan is from the shell wastes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of chitin and chitosan from fungal sources. Fungal chitosan was applied as a cotton fabric finishing agent using pad-dry-cure method. The topographical structure of chitosan-treated fabrics was much improved compared with control fabrics.
Carbon dots (C-dots) with multicolour fluorescence feature are presently gaining much importance in the area of bioanalytics and bioimaging due to their biocompatible and strong fluorescent nature. Herein, we report a one-step method for synthesizing multicolour, surface passivated carbon dots using chitosan as a ‘greener’ source through microwave pyrolysis approach. The present study also deals with the synthesis of chitosan-pDNA (GFP) nanocomplexes for gene delivery applications. Development of such biofriendly imaging agents and nanocarriers has huge diagnostic and therapeutic potential.
In this book lepidocrocite and goethite nano structures are studied for their application in lead removal from aqueous solutions. Lepidocrocite and goethite nano particles were synthesized and characterized. Subsequently their performance in lead sorption was examined. Maximum adsorption capacity of lepidocrocite and goethite for lead adsorption via equilibrium studies was investigated. Furthermore capability of lepidocrocite and goethite in lead removal efficiency was compared and the more efficient adsorbent was employed to fabricate chitosan nano composite. Adsorption performance of prepared chitosan nano composite was investigated. The adsorption capacity for goethite was about two times greater than lepidocrocite. Hence, goethite was chosen as nano-filler for the chitosan polymer matrix. The modified quadratic model exhibited excellent stability for Pb (II) adsorption by goethite/chitosan nano composite. The results of adsorption study by goethite/chitosan nano composite showed that Pb (II) uptake was enhanced by chitosan film using goethite nano particles.
In this study, chitosans was deacetylated with 45% sodium hydroxide under air atmosphere at 80 °C for up to 3 hour, to obtain deacetylated chitosan DDA measure by potentiometer titration method. Deacylated chitosan polymerizing methacrylic acid (DDCSPMAA) nanoparticle is an interesting material for use in controlled release for K fertilizers. In this work chitosan nanoparticles were obtained by polymerizing methacrylic acid for the incorporation of potassium chloride for potassium(K) fertilizers. The interaction and stability of chitosan nanoparticle suspensions containing K was evaluated by SEM. The SEM results indicated the existence of electrostatic interactions between chitosan nanoparticles and the elements K. The stability of the DDCS-PMAA colloidal suspension was higher with the addition of potassium due to the higher anion charge of potassium chloride. The use of slow release fertilizer has become a new trend to save fertilizer consumption and to minimize environmental pollution. Due to its polymeric cationic, biodegradable, bioabsorbable, and bactericidal characteristics.